E30 series BMW 3
since 1983-1994 of release
Repair and car operation
+ 1. Maintenance instruction
+ 2. Maintenance
+ 3. Engine
+ 4. Cooling system
+ 5. Heating and ventilation
+ 6. Fuel system
+ 7. Exhaust system
+ 8. Transmissions
+ 9. Coupling
+ 10. Brake system
+ 11. Running gear
+ 12. Body
+ 13. Electric equipment
- 14. Good advice
14.2. Changed numbers
14.3. Purchase of the old car or mysterious set of figures and letters
14.4. Durability of the car
14.5. About parallelism of bridges of the car and the trailer
14.6. Preparation of the car for winter
14.7. Rule 35
14.8. Choice of the second-hand car
14.9. Engine oils
14.10. That it is necessary to know, changing oil
14.11. Emergence in deposit oil
14.12 whether. It is possible to mix import oils?
14.13. "Eats" much, but silently goes
14.14. It is rather live, than it is dead …
14.15. It is not got - good advice
14.16. Visit to car-care center
14.17. A gear belt for a drive of the mechanism of a gazoraspredeleniye
14.18. Wear of pistons
14.20. Bearings of engines
14.21. Engine pollution
14.22. As the conditioner works and what to do, if it failed
14.23. Conditioner: not only "pluses", but also "minuses"
14.24. Rules of service of the conditioner
14.25. It is not necessary to stir antifreeze with antifreeze …
14.26. That it is necessary to know upon purchase of the air filter
14.27. Engine overheat
14.28. That it is necessary to know to the owner of the car with the injector engine
14.30. Possible malfunctions of the storage battery
14.31. What to do with the failed generator
14.32. The belt is guilty, and we blame the generator
14.34. Rub in one - or how to save the catalyst
14.36. Features of operation of brake system
14.37. Malfunctions of brake system
14.38. Brake liquids
14.39. ABS: natural choice
14.41. We update rims
14.42. Scheme of marking of a car tire
14.43. Metal corrosion
14.45. What creaks?
14.47. Safety cushion: troubles or pleasures?
14.48. We fit well?
14.49. Anticreeping "immunodeficiency"
14.50. Why headlights grow dull
14.52. About the correct adjustment of headlights
14.53. Electric motor
14.54. From change of places "composed" changes nothing?
Who from the car owners who even are seldom looking under a cowl, did not pour at least time this amber liquid in the engine of the favourite? Who at least time did not examine multi-colored canisters on regiments of autoshops? What oil to choose, what mean all these inscriptions and brands? As oil "Zhigulevsk", and here for all the rest was convenient and simple earlier, here. And now...
Why it is impossible to make, say, oil one for all cars that the motorist did not suffer?
Alas, so it is impossible, at least, today, though properties of engine oils so improved lately what to make a gross mistake at a choice it is almost impossible. And nevertheless operating conditions of oil in a heat and cold, in the petrol engine and a diesel engine moreover and with pressurization too differ. And everywhere from oil it is required to divide reliably rubbing surfaces, without allowing metal contact, to wash away the smallest particles of wear and a nagaroobrazovaniye, to interfere with corrosion, to take away heat, to wash away lakoobrazny deposits, not to be oxidized, not to foam, not too to get denser on a frost and not too to be diluted at high temperature, not to form a precipitation and, at last, not strongly to change all these qualities eventually. For this purpose the whole complex of additives is entered into oil: washing, anti-foamy, depressatorny (that did not get denser in a frost), protivoiznosny, etc. Some additives combine in themselves some functions, for example, диалкилдитиофосфат barium is at the same time protivoiznosny, anticorrosive and washing additive.
In the USSR operated and GOST 17479.1-85 defining properties and marking of oils for piston automobile engines continues to operate now. Depending on operational qualities six groups of oils on extent of speeding up and type of engines for which these oils are intended are established.
Group A – for not forced, B – low-forced, In – sredneforsirovanny and G – the high-forced engines. Besides, there is still a group D – only for the high-forced diesel engines and Е – too for diesel engines, but stationary and ship, working at fuel with the big content of sulfur. Besides, oils of groups B, B and G are in addition subdivided on carburetor with an index 1 and diesel (an index 2). Lack of an index says that oil suits both in a diesel engine, and in the petrol motor, but certainly, this group on extent of speeding up.
Other indicator based on domestic classification, viscosity of oil in сантистоксах (cSt) is at the working temperature taken for 100 ° by Page.
In order that oil easily allowed to start the engine on a frost and at the same time kept the viscosity at work, into it enter zagushchayushchy additives – polyisobutylene. These are the long molecular chains having property at low temperature to gather to balls. In such condition they do not influence almost viscosity of oil, it remains rather liquid. At temperature increase balls of molecules "are unwound" and загущают oil, increasing its viscosity. So receive the all-weather brands of oils having in designation an index "з".
So, here example of interpretation of domestic designation: М12Г – oil of motor, about 12 cSt having viscosity at 100 ° From group G, that is for the high-forced petrol and diesel engines. Summer it or winter? And in general, what such winter and summer at conversation on oils? It is considered to be that the winter is when average air temperature is generally lower 5 ° With, and the summer – above 20 ° Besides, if the car is maintained by Page under trying conditions (the mountain district, sandy and dirt roads), it is necessary to apply oil of the increased viscosity. М12Г is a summer grade. In the winter it is more preferable to use M8G oil. Though it is necessary to tell that the majority of motorists prefers for a long time to these brands all-weather oils M53/10G1 or M63/10G1. Such marking means that this oil at 100 ° With has viscosity 10сСт, and on a frost behaves as winter with viscosity of 5 or 6 cSt. The letter "z" – means zagushchenny, instead of winter as many consider. M53/10G1 oil more liquid, it suits use in a midland and northern areas during the whole year. M63/12G1 oil is suitable for warm edges, as more viscous more.
Our classification at all its informativnost is quite bulky, difficult to pronounce, and the main thing, – is not absolutely clear that such small, the average and high-forced engine.
Around the world today two types of designation of engine oils are accepted: on operational properties (API) and on viscosity (SAE).
The first type of classification is offered by the American oil institute and looks as a combination of two letters: S (service) for petrol engines or the C (commercial) for diesel engines with the additional letter showing degree of perfection of oil. And this degree is expressed quite in an original way – in years of production of engines for which this oil is intended. So, SA is an oil without additives for the oldest motors; SB – is newer to engines; SC – for cars of 1964-67 of release; SD – for motors of 1968-72; SE – for the cars which are let out since 1972; SF – since 1980. Certainly, it is a question of foreign cars, modern Russian cars correspond to the classes SE, SF. Two last classes – SG and SH – are intended for the newest cars. As you can see, letters in the Latin alphabet still remains much so at improvement of properties of oils of problems with marking will not be.
Society of automobile engineers (SAE) offered classification by viscosity at 100 ° to S.Vyglyadit it so: SAE 20, SAE 40, etc. If oil winter, is included into its designation the letter "W". All-weather oils are designated by the same principle, as domestic, only through a dash, for example: SAE 20W-50. It is necessary to remember only that these figures – not сантистоксы. For example, M63/14G1 oil corresponds to SAE 15W-40. Marking of all foreign oils contains, except the firm manufacturer name, both such as designation, for example: Mobil SAE 10W-50 API SF. Sometimes in marking the words Super, Extra, Diesel, Turbo, Multigrade (all-weather), etc. meet.
Mineral, that is received of oil, engine oil has, as it was already noted, the following shortcoming – strong dependence of viscosity on temperature. To reduce this phenomenon, enter zagushchayushchy additives. But here trouble, they quickly enough collapse because of high mechanical and thermal loadings. Especially it is appreciable on worn-out engines where after run in some hundred kilometers on new all-weather oil suddenly the emergency red bulb again lights up. What to do? To pass to more dense summer? But after all winter outside, in the morning the motor you will not get. An exit – in use of synthetic oil.
Them receive by chemical synthesis, than high uniformity and stability of properties is reached. But the most important – viscosity of "synthetics" changes from temperature, that is it more liquid on a frost and more dense in a heat, than "mineral water" a little. This property will allow to reduce wear of details and loss on a friction that saves fuel – about 2-3 %. Besides, "synthetics" burns down in the engine less and in general serves more long, forming few deposits. To distinguish synthetic oil it is easy on "synthetic" inscription, and also on a wide temperature range: 5W-40, 10W-60, etc. The only thing that is bad – the high price, approximately in 2,5–5 times more, than at mineral oil. Therefore there is a compromise – semi-synthetic oils, that is a "synthetics" mix with mineral (it is not obligatory 50/50). It is necessary to consider that it is not necessary to do the most such mix, additives of mineral oil can not be dissolved in the synthetic. "Blood clots" in oil channels are as a result formed.
As to mixing of two mineral or two synthetic oils, it – please. Also do not trust various instructions where it is forbidden to mix oils of different firms. Modern oil surely passes an omologatsiya, that is the admission to application, and one of points of this procedure is the certificate of full compatibility. And really, you can imagine the American car owner who should remember constantly, what oil is filled in in its car? When mixing various domestic oils it is possible to use a formula:
X = Ay + B (1 – y),
where X – viscosity of a mix, A and B – viscosity of mixed oils, y – a share of the first oil in a mix.
Some words about an oil choice depending on an engine condition. In a running in intensively deduces wear process products from pairs of friction and consequently it should not be dense. SAE 20, SAE 30, and from all-weather SAE 20W-30, 10W-30, 5W-30 best of all here will approach. In "maturity" SAE 30 suit VAZ motors, 20W-30, 15W-30, 10W-40. More dense are better be not to using yet because of danger of oil starvation in a cold season. And here BONDS engines and MEMZ-968 need something more dense as the first has more gaps and maslosjemny rings, and at "Zaporozhets" high thermal stress are worse. Apply here SAE 20W-40, 10W-50, 10W-60. The same oils suit and any "elderly" motors.
Whether it is necessary to wash out the engine at oil change? If the car worked all the time at high-quality oil, – is not present, but, at least, time in two years or each 30000 km to wash out the motor nevertheless costs. Especially, now on sale there are the structures turning filled-in old oil into the flushing. It is not necessary, as earlier, several times to pour out and fill in, and all procedure of washing will take away from you 5–15 minutes.