E30 series BMW 3
since 1983-1994 of release
Repair and car operation
+ 1. Maintenance instruction
+ 2. Maintenance
+ 3. Engine
+ 4. Cooling system
+ 5. Heating and ventilation
+ 6. Fuel system
+ 7. Exhaust system
+ 8. Transmissions
+ 9. Coupling
+ 10. Brake system
+ 11. Running gear
+ 12. Body
+ 13. Electric equipment
- 14. Good advice
14.2. Changed numbers
14.3. Purchase of the old car or mysterious set of figures and letters
14.4. Durability of the car
14.5. About parallelism of bridges of the car and the trailer
14.6. Preparation of the car for winter
14.7. Rule 35
14.8. Choice of the second-hand car
14.9. Engine oils
14.10. That it is necessary to know, changing oil
14.11. Emergence in deposit oil
14.12 whether. It is possible to mix import oils?
14.13. "Eats" much, but silently goes
14.14. It is rather live, than it is dead …
14.15. It is not got - good advice
14.16. Visit to car-care center
14.17. A gear belt for a drive of the mechanism of a gazoraspredeleniye
14.18. Wear of pistons
14.20. Bearings of engines
14.21. Engine pollution
14.22. As the conditioner works and what to do, if it failed
14.23. Conditioner: not only "pluses", but also "minuses"
14.24. Rules of service of the conditioner
14.25. It is not necessary to stir antifreeze with antifreeze …
14.26. That it is necessary to know upon purchase of the air filter
14.27. Engine overheat
14.28. That it is necessary to know to the owner of the car with the injector engine
14.30. Possible malfunctions of the storage battery
14.31. What to do with the failed generator
14.32. The belt is guilty, and we blame the generator
14.34. Rub in one - or how to save the catalyst
14.36. Features of operation of brake system
14.37. Malfunctions of brake system
14.38. Brake liquids
14.39. ABS: natural choice
14.41. We update rims
14.42. Scheme of marking of a car tire
14.43. Metal corrosion
14.45. What creaks?
14.47. Safety cushion: troubles or pleasures?
14.48. We fit well?
14.49. Anticreeping "immunodeficiency"
14.50. Why headlights grow dull
14.52. About the correct adjustment of headlights
14.53. Electric motor
14.54. From change of places "composed" changes nothing?
What is the accumulator?
The accumulator is a device for energy storage in a chemical form which can be used as an electricity.
The accumulator works thanks to that two various metals, being in acid solution, develop an electricity.
Main indicators of accumulators
Below some important facts about accumulators which will help you are given and it is correct to your buyers to choose the accumulator for the car.
Akkmulyator possesses 100 % efficiency at 27 ° S.Pri-18 ° About efficiency of the same akkmulyator falls to 40 %. Now to start the engine, it is necessary to have more than twice more energy, than it was necessary at 27 ° for S.Podcherknite this important factor to your clients. Point to need of big akkmulyator, especially in cold climates.
The starting capacity (starting amperes) shows ability of the accumulator to start the car in the conditions of very cold weather. It shows number of amperes which develops the accumulator within 30 seconds at-18 ° With without power failure below 7,2 volts (the minimum level demanded for reliable start). The this indicator, the more starting capacity of the accumulator is higher.
The reserve capacity shows extent of time in minutes during which the accumulator provides 25 amperes at 27 ° with Page. This factor represents time during which the accumulator ensures functioning of all auxiliary devices in the car at night and in the conditions of bad weather at the faulty generator of a charge.
Functioning in the conditions of cold weather
In winter conditions at-18 ° With and below the accumulator will be badly charged in connection with increase of internal resistance. At short trips in the winter the energy spent by the accumulator for start-up, is not compensated. As a result the accumulator works very hard, is constantly discharged and eventually refuses.
In summer months after long trips the engine strongly heats up, and often happens that it is difficult for starting anew. Such "hot starts" sometimes demand as much capacity, how many and at cold weather, or it is more. It especially extends on vysokokompressionny engines with large working volume and cars with conditioners. It once again emphasizes importance of a right choice of the accumulator according to the car engine.
How it is correct to choose an akkmulyator?
Probably, at each motorist there comes such moment when to potter further with the old storage battery becomes too troublesome. Especially if outside winter also there are bitter colds. Constant problems with engine start, infinite "house" additional charges and fear that the being showered active weight at the most inappropriate moment will close plates then from any intersection you will drag home on a tow. The conclusion arises: the new accumulator is necessary. But what?
All starterny storage batteries share on three categories: served, or maintainable; the low-served; the unattended.
Served accumulators for the present meet on sale though about ten years ago they made practically absolute majority. Now they are made by some Russian plants moreover in several countries of the former socialist camp. They are easy for learning on the ebonitovy case and black mastic which is filled in from above. Such accumulator gives the chance to replace the block of plates one or several banok if between plates there was a short circuit. But the vast majority in it will not be engaged. Besides ebonitovy case more expensive in production less other, than plastic, and at blow breaks up. Mastic too has an essential shortcoming – over time from dirt and temperature drops it loses the insulating properties, why the accumulator starts to be discharged spontaneously very quickly.
The owner of the unattended accumulator is simply deprived of possibility something to make with it: on a cover of such battery there are no openings and jellied jams. These are the special accumulators intended for defined (read – ideal) service conditions with soft climate and the debugged service. They very expensive also are suitable for use not on all cars.
The majority of automobile accumulators let out around the world is low-served. They have no such rigid restrictions in operation and are widely presented in the market, from rather cheap and simple to expensive, qualitative and literally larded by modern technologies.
Let's say you decided to buy the accumulator, but where also what? At first – where. It is best of all to go to solid firm where to you will quickly pick up that is necessary. Now – what. Let's not advise something concrete, we will make only some recommendations.
The prestige and popularity of any brand of accumulators have crucial importance upon purchase, but it is necessary to consider and some technical moments. Certainly, the chemical composition of plates or technology of their manufacturing are hardly known to the seller. And whether it is necessary it is to the buyer? It is better to pay attention that it is possible to see most. For example, the packaged plates (each plate is packed into a microporous envelope separator) which prevent short circuit between them owing to an osypaniye of active weight and respectively prolong term of "life" of the accumulator. Such packages are well visible if to open a jellied stopper. Pay attention and to jams. It is known that at a battery charging water from electrolit is evaporated and at electrolysis decays on hydrogen and oxygen.
That the accumulator did not blow up, in jams do sideways or from above a small opening for an exit of gases. In the simplest (and the cheapest) accumulators do simply small opening which can quickly be hammered by dirt. In more expensive jams are made like the valve which is not giving to electrolit to be splashed out, with a cavity for a kontsensatsiya паров. It is best of all, if jams have no openings, and in a cover of the battery there is a system of cavities for water condensation, and also the uniform gazootvodny channel, as in unattended accumulators.
Low-served accumulators are delivered by producers sukhozaryazhenny (as the majority served) or filled in with electrolit at plant. If you buy the accumulator for the future, it is better to buy the sukhozaryazhenny: it has a big period of storage. To bring them into a working condition, it is necessary to fill in electrolit. The akkmulyator filled in at plant are already ready to work. The electrolit for them prepares experts from high-quality components and contains much (sometimes more than twenty) the additives interfering a sulfatatsiya, an osypaniye of active weight, etc. It is necessary to tell that on sale there were the special modifiers allegedly containing such additives, but they do not cause trust. There is one more advantage at the filled-in accumulators. Before getting to a distribution network, them subject to a special charging with control of parameters on special equipment. Thus to reveal poor-quality batteries it is much easier.
Probably, the most important, on what the buyer should pay attention, are characteristics of the accumulator. Their three. The first – nomanalny tension, it at all batteries identical, and it is impossible to be mistaken. Upon purchase it is desirable to check the accumulator a loading fork. The second – the capacity measured in ampere/hours (A/h), means, roughly speaking, the quantity of the electric power which is storing in the accumulator. On capacity depends, as it is long possible to twist a starter the engine, is more exact – how many it is possible to make attempts to start the engine. The price of the accumulator is almost directly proportional to its capacity. And the third characteristic – a starting current (it is measured in amperes. А), i.e. a current submitted on a starter during start-up. On accumulators it can specify on four different systems: GOST (on domestic), EN (a standard of Uniform Europe), SAE (the American standard) and DIN. The last, German standard, is closest to our state standard specification and on the majority of the European batteries is put "by default" i.e. when the system of a standard is not specified. The it is more, the quicker and with bigger force the starter will turn the engine.
It is better, if you buy the accumulator with those characteristics which are specified in the maintenance instruction of your car: so it will serve to you more long at the minimum expenses. It is possible to save and buy the accumulator of smaller capacity, but it will serve you less usual term and it is bad to cope with winter start. Having bought the battery even not much more bigger capacity, you will not win in service life since constant недозаряд the accumulator will lead to a sulfatatsiya of plates, and will lose in money. To be fond of the raised starting current also does not follow: will burn a starter. Replace oil in the engine better, and problems with start will not be.
Lately the market of the country is overflowed with the poor-quality goods and fakes. Accumulators are not an exception. There are some signs on which it is possible with sufficient accuracy to distinguish the original from a fake. The first and, perhaps, main thing: on the accumulator the country manufacturer and letting-out plant should be surely specified, it is better if with the address. The second – manufacturing date that is very important, if the accumulator filled in should be specified. Technical data sheet, and here existence of the instruction should be applied to each battery it is unessential. It is connected with that in the West accumulators almost do not sell at retail, they are established by experts at service stations. The third – the high-quality accumulator is inconceivable without the high-quality case, good jams and the smooth vyvodny plugs quite often greased with technical protective greasing from oxidation and covered from above with color plastic caps.
The main task of the accumulator is current giving for engine start. The current which is required for a provorachivaniye of the cold engine differs from the car to the car. It depends on size of a piston stroke and diameter, number of cylinders, a prokruchivaniye ratio an engine / starter, resistance of a chain, temperatures, viscosity of oil of the engine and loading of auxiliary devices. The four-cylinder engine can demand the same size of a current of start as well as eight-cylinder with large working volume. When the original storage equipment steals up to the car, all these factors are considered.
The second purpose of the akkmulyatorny battery is completion of loading requirements of the car when they exceed possibility of charging system on supply by energy. The charging system maintains electric loading under normal conditions movements. Nevertheless, if the engine is idling, the battery can fill a part of energy for auxiliary devices. It takes place when driving on the city at constant stops and movement renewal at normal loading of auxiliary devices. The storage battery should fill electric loading of the car at refusal of charging system.
At replacement of the automobile accumulator apply equivalent to the original storage battery. Apply the storage battery of bigger capacity if the bigger factor of reliability is necessary.
The third purpose of the storage battery is action as a voltage stabilizer in charging system. From time to time in electric system very high transitional tension is developed. It can take place at short circuit or chain disconnection, etc. The storage battery partially absorbs and considerably smoothes this peak tension and protects semi-conductor components from failure.
Protect the accumulator!
The more cold on the street – the more than problems at drivers. One of the main – as on a frost to start the engine. And here the accumulator first of all makes itself felt. On it in a frost the greatest loading falls: start of the engine demands much more big efforts. That the starter turned the crankshaft of the cold engine, the storage battery needs to give much more energy. Thus do not forget that restoration of operability of the accumulator occurs not instantly, and after a while: the electrolit which have thickened on cold slowly gets in plates. For this reason repeated attempt of start of the engine recommend to make only in some minutes. Besides on a frost the battery at work of a starter is discharged very quickly.
Some drivers, trying to start up the "frozen" engine, continuously twist a starter over and over again. As a result of this violence the accumulator very quickly "сдыхает" – finally and irrevocably: battery plates, without maintaining excessive loadings, start to be jarred on and showered.
Probably, there is no need to say about need of regular care of the accumulator, that is necessary not less often than once a week to check electrolit level in banks and if necessary to add the distilled water. If the accumulator unattended – cares is less. But all the same it is necessary to give attention – periodically it is necessary to check a tension of a driving belt, and at the first signs of decrease in capacity the accumulator is necessary for recharging.
And now it will be a question of how quicker and least without serious consequences for the accumulator to start up the engine on a frost.
At first – obvious. In due time replace oil with the winter. Better – on import, for ours (including packed up) quite often has unpleasant feature to turn on a frost into kissel or at all to freeze. How such oil will grease engine details, with it it is necessary to the accumulator very hardly and its days will be found.
The second – candles. For the winter it is better to establish the new. But it is the theory, and in practice such factors, as "ekonomnost" or lack of it in due time near at hand often come into force. For, while the engine is started up normally, many at all do not remember that in the engine there are candles... If candles nevertheless old – establish in them a necessary gap which constantly increases because of an obgoraniye of electrodes. It is better to make it in good time, differently it is necessary to be picked when it is necessary to go. As a last resort, if the engine is not started up, it is possible to establish a gap less recommended, but in this case electrodes will burn even quicker.
In hard frosts before including a starter, "warm up" the accumulator – include for few minutes a driving beam. Also do not try to get the engine at once. At first several short inclusions of a starter drive pistons in cylinders slightly to disperse the thickened oil. And after it try to start it. If the engine was not started from the first attempt, do not switch off at once a starter. The most optimum mode of start-up of the engine – a series of 10-15 second attempts with three-minute breaks.
Typical loadings of the passenger car (in amperes)