E30 series BMW 3

since 1983-1994 of release

Repair and car operation

+ 1. Maintenance instruction
+ 2. Maintenance
+ 3. Engine
+ 4. Cooling system
+ 5. Heating and ventilation
+ 6. Fuel system
+ 7. Exhaust system
+ 8. Transmissions
+ 9. Coupling
+ 10. Brake system
+ 11. Running gear
+ 12. Body
+ 13. Electric equipment
- 14. Good advice
   14.2. Changed numbers
   14.3. Purchase of the old car or mysterious set of figures and letters
   14.4. Durability of the car
   14.5. About parallelism of bridges of the car and the trailer
   14.6. Preparation of the car for winter
   14.7. Rule 35
   14.8. Choice of the second-hand car
   14.9. Engine oils
   14.10. That it is necessary to know, changing oil
   14.11. Emergence in deposit oil
   14.12 whether. It is possible to mix import oils?
   14.13. "Eats" much, but silently goes
   14.14. It is rather live, than it is dead …
   14.15. It is not got - good advice
   14.16. Visit to car-care center
   14.17. A gear belt for a drive of the mechanism of a gazoraspredeleniye
   14.18. Wear of pistons
   14.19. Valves
   14.20. Bearings of engines
   14.21. Engine pollution
   14.22. As the conditioner works and what to do, if it failed
   14.23. Conditioner: not only "pluses", but also "minuses"
   14.24. Rules of service of the conditioner
   14.25. It is not necessary to stir antifreeze with antifreeze …
   14.26. That it is necessary to know upon purchase of the air filter
   14.27. Engine overheat
   14.28. That it is necessary to know to the owner of the car with the injector engine
   14.29. Accumulator
   14.30. Possible malfunctions of the storage battery
   14.31. What to do with the failed generator
   14.32. The belt is guilty, and we blame the generator
   14.33. Catalyst
   14.34. Rub in one - or how to save the catalyst
   14.35. Probuksovochka
   14.36. Features of operation of brake system
   14.37. Malfunctions of brake system
   14.38. Brake liquids
   14.39. ABS: natural choice
   14.40. Rims
   14.41. We update rims
   14.42. Scheme of marking of a car tire
   14.43. Metal corrosion
   14.44. Automake-up
   14.45. What creaks?
   14.46. Hatch
   14.47. Safety cushion: troubles or pleasures?
   14.48. We fit well?
   14.49. Anticreeping "immunodeficiency"
   14.50. Why headlights grow dull
   14.51. "Galogenki"
   14.52. About the correct adjustment of headlights
   14.53. Electric motor
   14.54. From change of places "composed" changes nothing?

14.8. Choice of the second-hand car


You would not get what car – be ready to carry out repair and preventive works to return to it former молодось, to make attractive and individual, and also to adapt for practical operation, not to distract then from the daily cares. Similar works we will divide into some stages.

Do not trust the eyes

The first – estimate a technical condition of the car: that for "animal" you drove under a window. Begin with the engine and a running gear: after all upon purchase you, probably, gave to a body a lot of attention and were convinced that it quite good. Rotten and worn-out it is difficult to give out for good how the seller tried. But many domestic knots quite often leave good impression only thanking... modern auto chemical goods – then not any expert straight off опеределит that to what. For example, in mercilessly smoking and knocking motor filled in the complex of additives which is almost nullifying visible symptoms of wear. However, its action will suffice on 300–1000 km... In system of cooling leaking before sale there can be a lot of hermetic or even mustard. There are drugs and for the "killed" accumulator. If from a transmission or a reducer leaked oil, there, present, filled in wonderful liquid and. . no, oil will not cease to exude, but, even when it will flow out everything, you will not notice it – transfers will join still easily, and the reducer will not hoot (month two, before complete death).

Think, all above-mentioned – a unique case? At all not. The car with such "set" can be bought according to the announcement, and furthermore, on a car market. Thus the body at it can be in rather good condition, and the salon – to be simply magnificent... And so, that, having gone for the first time on such beauty to the country, back not to come back an electric train, it is better to carry out diagnostics of all knots in the first days.

Whether the motor is healthy

Let's begin with the engine. Its warming up, we fill in liquid for five-minute washing of system of greasing. We merge oil, we remove the filter. Having established new (it is possible cheap), we fill in domestic flushing oil and half an hour we drive the motor on single turns. If merged after that black, operation it is possible to repeat oil (without changing the filter) as packing is calculated on two times. The sound of the working motor should remain same what was before your manipulations. If there was a knocking and a klatsaniye in a block head, that, having filled in engine oil (and having once again changed the filter, already on expensive import), go under the own steam on HUNDRED – to regulate valves and to tighten a chain. But if in the lower part of the engine the tractor sounds changing the intensity depending on turns are distributed, – put rubbish. Stop the engine and, without filling in some fresh oil, go on a tow to mechanics for survey of radical and shatunny loose leaves.

And your motor did not publish any extraneous sounds? Perfectly – then wash up it and, having dry wiped, go to a trial trip. In a way fix any uncharacteristic sounds and the noise going from under a cowl, and also (subjectively) capacity upon purchase. These indicators of "health" of the motor should not change in comparison with a trial trip upon purchase. Kilometers through hundred examine the engine – whether there is no oil leak. If is, that, possibly, the hose of ventilation of a case is littered or that is worse, it is necessary to change laying, epiploons. And suddenly in some days after washing from the exhaust silencer there was a blue smoke? Prepare for replacement of maslosjemny caps as you, possibly, "washed up" an antismoky additive... For check remove a hose of ventilation of a case – from it hardly appreciable smoke is admissible. If the whitish smoke brings down clubs, and turns increased – replacement maslosjemny rings demand. Measure a compression to estimate – to change only rings or to do boring of cylinders with audit of loose leaves, and also cranked and distributive shaft.

We wish, that your motor did not show any of similar symptoms – then there are bases for confidence that it will not disturb the owner of 30-40 thousand kilometers, and even it is more.

With system of cooling arrive the similarly lubricant: in a radiator of the heated-up engine fill in flushing liquid, and then, погоняв the motor, pour out all "slops" without the rest. Then fill in pure water and, again having started up the motor, attentively watch a radiator, hoses, the heater crane. On water it is possible even to do a bit of traveling some days (in the summer, certainly!) and, if level in a broad tank did not go down, it is courageous to fill in "Antifreeze".

The ignition system, most likely, should not present surprises: before sale to it, and also to the carburetor pay special attention. After all the car should be started up from a half-turn and be dispersed quickly, without failures – differently who will buy it?! And therefore change candles, high-voltage wires and the air filter (in the author's opinion, it it is better import) – if the former owner did not make it.

The electric equipment less all is subject to wear, and so, and to "experiments" of the seller. Your task – to check serviceability of all lighting devices, it is obligatory to change "bugs" for regular safety locks moreover to check tension in an onboard network (13,6–14,5 In).

To brakes – attention special

We pass to brake system. For the sake of its serviceability it is not necessary to feel sorry money, as for it (along with a steering) – sacred: your life and safety of others depends on serviceability of brakes. Having removed jams, glance in tanks of hydraulic actuators of brakes and coupling (if its drive not hummock) – through liquid the tank bottom should be looked through. Its dark brown color indicates need of immediate replacement, and happens that with the old polluted liquid of a brake leak, and after good washing of system and filling the fresh leak stops. Further, having serially removed wheels and brake drums (behind), examine the brake shoes which wear should be uniform and not exceed a half admissible, otherwise blocks replace. Then check action of brakes on the desert highway, watching that when braking any intensity the car did not withdraw aside, and also after sharp braking since speed of 40-60 km/h all four wheels were blocked, having left a black and uniform trace on asphalt (it, naturally, does not concern cars with ABS). And, at last, regularly supervise liquid level in tanks which should remain constant, and in a luggage carrier keep a small bottle "тормозухи".

Further the viewing hole or a platform is required. Having warmed up the car, replace oil in a transmission and the back bridge. Then study knots of a running gear, paying attention to integrity of boots of steering drafts, spherical support, CV JOINTS. Ask the assistant vigorously повращать a wheel on a small corner and check люфт in joints of a steering trapeze. At big люфте replace drafts it it is simple and inexpensive, and the role of a serviceable trapeze in safety and stability of management is difficult for overestimating! More under car it nothing you.

"But allow, – the reader will exclaim, – and if I see holes in the bottom, the burst levers, the burned-through exhaust silencer, the longeron which has departed from a body..." Well, excuse! I meant that the bottom of this car you saw the second, instead of for the first time. That is the car upon purchase examined and investigated carefully (though, can, and in an amateurish way), instead of simply sat down in salon and hit on hands. In a word, it was necessary to look earlier!

Do not feel sorry some shampoo

Now we will start the second stage which purpose – to give to your "swallow" individual shape, and also to try to "erase" from memory of the car (and yours too) memoirs that to you already used it. In the clear afternoon carefully wash up it outside autoshampoo, in hard-to-reach spots using the soaped brush-fleyts. If the chromeplated details grew dull or on them rusty spots, it doesn't matter acted. The struck places plentifully rub with a kashitsa from baking soda by means of a toothbrush. It is a little labor-consuming, but result excellent! It is quite good to change the faded rasseivatel of back lamps and front position lamps; there are kopeks, and the effect is available. Rims (for certain after all rusty) put on plastic caps. In summary rub a body poliroly and pass to salon.

Sit down on a back seat with a water bucket, a laundry soap, a rag and a small brush for shaving or a brush. Then soap a back part of a ceiling a small brush and, having waited a little, collect soap strongly wrung out rag. After repetition of procedure move forward and do the same with other part of a ceiling. Similar operation carry out with an upholstery of doors.

Glasses from within wipe liquid for washing of windows. Old covers of seats are better for throwing out, as a last resort – it is good to wash and densely to pull anew. On the back shelf (in sedans) lay a piece of a carpet under color of covers and put the first-aid kit, previously having touched its contents. The dashboard ("Torpedo") and a wheel with the switch wipe alcohol and rub with a sponge-polirolem "555". Having removed rubber rugs (they need to be washed up separately), carefully vacuum a synthetic carpet, in an ideal – washing vacuum cleaner. If in salon smoked, and you do not gather, hang up an air freshener. If necessary establish new rear-view mirrors – two lateral and, the magnifying size, – in salon. Put things in order in a luggage carrier and... have a good trip!