E30 series BMW 3
since 1983-1994 of release
Repair and car operation
+ 1. Maintenance instruction
+ 2. Maintenance
+ 3. Engine
+ 4. Cooling system
+ 5. Heating and ventilation
+ 6. Fuel system
+ 7. Exhaust system
+ 8. Transmissions
+ 9. Coupling
+ 10. Brake system
+ 11. Running gear
+ 12. Body
+ 13. Electric equipment
- 14. Good advice
14.2. Changed numbers
14.3. Purchase of the old car or mysterious set of figures and letters
14.4. Durability of the car
14.5. About parallelism of bridges of the car and the trailer
14.6. Preparation of the car for winter
14.7. Rule 35
14.8. Choice of the second-hand car
14.9. Engine oils
14.10. That it is necessary to know, changing oil
14.11. Emergence in deposit oil
14.12 whether. It is possible to mix import oils?
14.13. "Eats" much, but silently goes
14.14. It is rather live, than it is dead …
14.15. It is not got - good advice
14.16. Visit to car-care center
14.17. A gear belt for a drive of the mechanism of a gazoraspredeleniye
14.18. Wear of pistons
14.20. Bearings of engines
14.21. Engine pollution
14.22. As the conditioner works and what to do, if it failed
14.23. Conditioner: not only "pluses", but also "minuses"
14.24. Rules of service of the conditioner
14.25. It is not necessary to stir antifreeze with antifreeze …
14.26. That it is necessary to know upon purchase of the air filter
14.27. Engine overheat
14.28. That it is necessary to know to the owner of the car with the injector engine
14.30. Possible malfunctions of the storage battery
14.31. What to do with the failed generator
14.32. The belt is guilty, and we blame the generator
14.34. Rub in one - or how to save the catalyst
14.36. Features of operation of brake system
14.37. Malfunctions of brake system
14.38. Brake liquids
14.39. ABS: natural choice
14.41. We update rims
14.42. Scheme of marking of a car tire
14.43. Metal corrosion
14.45. What creaks?
14.47. Safety cushion: troubles or pleasures?
14.48. We fit well?
14.49. Anticreeping "immunodeficiency"
14.50. Why headlights grow dull
14.52. About the correct adjustment of headlights
14.53. Electric motor
14.54. From change of places "composed" changes nothing?
The simplified formula of system of greasing of the engine, providing durability and its economic work sounds so: Pressure, Level and Quality!
First, pressure. All well know that pressure of oil in the engine constantly should be supervised during car movement by means of regular devices – a control lamp or also strelochny electric manometer.
Pressure should be not less than 0,5 Bar at the minimum turns of idling (the control lamp does not burn or blinks) and no more than 4,5 Bar at high frequency of rotation of a shaft of the engine. If at the working engine the control lamp of emergency pressure of oil or the shooter of an electric manometer suddenly lit up fell to a zero – immediately switch off the engine, stop in a safe place and find the reason of this phenomenon.
Pressure existence in system of greasing is best of all for checking by means of the exemplary manometer twirled to the place of the sensor. If such is not present near at hand – for example, breakage happened on the way, it is necessary to check, whether there was an oil in the engine pallet, and then – whether the conductor going from the sensor of pressure broke. When also a wire on a place, and oil is on щупе – unscrew the sensor of pressure and, having closed an opening of the trunk oil main, ask the assistant to start the engine. If at the working engine oil does not follow from the trunk oil main under pressure – it is necessary to check and repair a drive of the pump or a maslozabornik. But it is a subject of separate conversation. It is necessary to remember the main thing – operation of the engine without the corresponding pressure of oil is forbidden! Will cheaper reach to HUNDRED on a tow. If after engine start oil follows from the trunk main under pressure, the showing system is faulty.
Check of operability of the showing device
At the included ignition to disconnect a wire from the sensor and to touch them "weight" of the car. If the device is serviceable, the arrow will deviate on the maximum value of pressure or the control lamp will light up.
Check of operability of the sensor of pressure
To unscrew the sensor, to press its case to "weight", without removing the conductor. The pump or the compressor for inflating of wheels to create pressure in the oil highway of the sensor and at the included ignition to watch an arrow deviation. If the arrow of an electric manometer of pressure of oil deviates in proportion to change of pressure of air, the showing system is serviceable. At faulty showing system it is possible to reach only to the next HUNDRED provided that you were convinced available pressure of greasing system.
The second component is level of oil.
To check level of oil it is desirable daily, in any case not less than through 500 km of run. On the cold engine level should be between "min" and "max" labels. The deviation these borders is inadmissible.
Change of level of oil – important diagnostic parameter. If, for example, in "Zhiguli" it is necessary to add no more than 0,5 m of oil on 1000 km of run, an engine condition the fine. A standard cost for these engines – to 0,8 l on 1000 km, at much bigger expense – look for the reason. It is a leakage of system of greasing, wear of condensing elements of the gas-distributing mechanism (the epiploons, directing plugs of valves), malfunction of system of ventilation of a case or wear of tsilindroporshnevy group more often.
That is, the oil level quicker decreases, the engine condition is worse. In this case oil should be added. Never mix the different oils, even the most known firms is can have undesirable consequences. To pass to other brand (firm) it is possible, but before it wash out the engine and already further use oil only this brand.
Sometimes level does not decrease, and on the contrary, increases. It is a bad sign as increase level of oil can only in two cases: at emergence in the pallet of a case of the engine of cooling liquid or fuel. Both that, and another is extremely undesirable.
Emergence on щупе a foamy emulsion of yellow and whitish color indicates availability of cooling liquid in oil and, as a rule, on need of repair of the engine. The same emulsion in a jellied mouth, under a cover of the gas-distributing mechanism or in a ventilating tube of a case is formed at short trips to a cold season and is not a sign of malfunction of the engine. At long operation of the engine in a normal temperature mode the specified phenomenon is not observed, that is the emulsion independently disappears under the influence of high temperature.
If oil level considerably increased, it became liquid with a fuel smell, the reason in poor-quality fuel, idle candles or in malfunction of system of supply of fuel. It is necessary to change oil, but previously to find and eliminate the reason of increase of its level.
And the third component is a quality of oil.
It is clear that such engine oil which answers on an index of viscosity and quality indicators to the concrete engine is qualitative.
Outwardly fresh oil should be yellow or light brown without any precipitation. And what to do with a deposit if it is in firm canisters: diligently to mix and fill in in the engine, or to fill in only a light part of oil, having left a deposit (by the way, this question often met in letters of readers)? Neither that, nor another!!! Simply do not buy the oil having a deposit. Its existence is an indicator of poor-quality oil. The deposit of gray, yellow flowers or their shades is formed in the presence of water. The deposit dark to black flowers appears at excess of a period of storage of oil (that is over 5 years) or at poor-quality purification of base oil.
The deposit can be seen, if the canister translucent and long time is motionless. In all other cases in oil and, therefore, its unfitness to use in the engine, it is possible to define availability of water very simply and quickly. It is necessary to pour oil half-test tubes, to heat up it to temperature 100 ° S.Poyavleniye on an oil surface мены points to availability of water in it.
Approximately it is possible to define presence of mechanical impurity, having dripped oils on filtering paper. If after drying there was a light yellow spot – oil pure. If yellowish or, even worse, a grayish spot with the dark edging on perimeter – oil has a large amount of mechanical impurity. It in case buy fresh, new oil. And what already worked in the engine, it is necessary to replace, when at check the gray spot in the middle is less than a width of the black edging on its perimeter.
The most difficult is check on existence of additives in oil. For this purpose it is necessary to gather in pure dry heat-resistant glasswares of 50-70 g of oil and as much distilled water in which 3–4 g фенолфталеина are dissolved. Then capacity with oil and solution фенолфталеина put in a pan with water, heat up to boiling, from time to time mixing a mix. After boiling of water let's to all "bath" cool down to room temperature. If water solution in oil became reddish (crimson) – that additives are, oil normal. In all other cases – oil poor-quality, without additives.