E30 series BMW 3
since 1983-1994 of release
Repair and car operation
+ 1. Maintenance instruction
+ 2. Maintenance
+ 3. Engine
+ 4. Cooling system
+ 5. Heating and ventilation
+ 6. Fuel system
+ 7. Exhaust system
+ 8. Transmissions
+ 9. Coupling
+ 10. Brake system
+ 11. Running gear
+ 12. Body
+ 13. Electric equipment
- 14. Good advice
14.2. Changed numbers
14.3. Purchase of the old car or mysterious set of figures and letters
14.4. Durability of the car
14.5. About parallelism of bridges of the car and the trailer
14.6. Preparation of the car for winter
14.7. Rule 35
14.8. Choice of the second-hand car
14.9. Engine oils
14.10. That it is necessary to know, changing oil
14.11. Emergence in deposit oil
14.12 whether. It is possible to mix import oils?
14.13. "Eats" much, but silently goes
14.14. It is rather live, than it is dead …
14.15. It is not got - good advice
14.16. Visit to car-care center
14.17. A gear belt for a drive of the mechanism of a gazoraspredeleniye
14.18. Wear of pistons
14.20. Bearings of engines
14.21. Engine pollution
14.22. As the conditioner works and what to do, if it failed
14.23. Conditioner: not only "pluses", but also "minuses"
14.24. Rules of service of the conditioner
14.25. It is not necessary to stir antifreeze with antifreeze …
14.26. That it is necessary to know upon purchase of the air filter
14.27. Engine overheat
14.28. That it is necessary to know to the owner of the car with the injector engine
14.30. Possible malfunctions of the storage battery
14.31. What to do with the failed generator
14.32. The belt is guilty, and we blame the generator
14.34. Rub in one - or how to save the catalyst
14.36. Features of operation of brake system
14.37. Malfunctions of brake system
14.38. Brake liquids
14.39. ABS: natural choice
14.41. We update rims
14.42. Scheme of marking of a car tire
14.43. Metal corrosion
14.45. What creaks?
14.47. Safety cushion: troubles or pleasures?
14.48. We fit well?
14.49. Anticreeping "immunodeficiency"
14.50. Why headlights grow dull
14.52. About the correct adjustment of headlights
14.53. Electric motor
14.54. From change of places "composed" changes nothing?
Statistically, cases of head-on (face-to-face) collision make more than a half of all collisions of cars. One of means of protection of the driver and the passenger at front blow – a safety cushion which is intended for protection against contact to a steering wheel, the dashboard, a windshield. For this purpose the pillow should be inflated for a period from the moment of blow of a car till contact of the driver with a steering wheel (it makes about 15-30 milliseconds). However it should be noted that only in a combination to a seat belt of "Airbag" provides extremely effective protection, reduces risk of receiving a heavy trauma to a minimum.
Usually the pillow is hidden in a massive nave of a steering wheel. In comparison with the car without a safety cushion the wheel shaft, a few other fastenings of a steering wheel is extended, facing casings are changed.
Well, generally, the pillow and elements of system are collected in one place – a steering wheel (it is independent system). What here enters? А: a gas generator and an inflatable bag – the pillow module. Б: electronic sensor of collisions. В: control lamp.
At ignition inclusion for 3–4 seconds the control lamp testifying to serviceability of system lights up. "Asterisk" – all OK went out. Well, and in all other cases the red spark on a wheel (below on the dashboard) reports: with a pillow something not so, the highly skilled help is necessary. And it is important! Also remember that any works on repair, installation, service of elements of system of a pillow it is authorized to make to the only specially prepared and trained personnel HUNDRED. (And that can and shoot moreover as!).
How this process in dynamics looks? Everything occurs in a flash! The sensor usually reacts either to deformation, or on delay, it gives a signal to a detonator which, blowing up, destroys a metal membrane in cylinders with the gas compressed to 200–250 MPa, usually argon or the ozone filling a pillow, made of multilayered nylon (or polyamide) thickness about 0,3-0,4 mm. That, being inflated, breaks off a module cover on special cuts and escapes outside. Passes only 15–30 milliseconds after collision, and the pillow already revealed and "waits" for the driver who only still started to be displaced forward. There is a contact! Extinguishing energy of blow, the pillow lets out gas through the special calibrated openings, deadly movement of the person is stopped, the pillow executed the protective function and completely lets out gas – "falls down".
And all this occurs in 0,5 seconds! Thus dissipates to 90 % of energy of blow, and remaining 10 return a body of the driver in a starting position. Yes not so and it is simple to fill and hide a pillow in capacity of 40 l (and this majority of safety cushions) for a short instant!
I consider a duty to direct attention that "adjust" each safety cushion under concrete model of a car. For each family of cars develop own or pedantically adapt existing system, carry out great variety of tests (including "kresh-tests").
Besides, safety cushions test for electromagnetic compatibility with a car network, on "false operation" etc. Results hide in electronics as peculiar limiters – operation thresholds. After all in any way it is impossible to allow, that the pillow worked from that the driver зазевался and a car got into a hole on the road. And such happens – and then prepare to operation of a safety cushion moreover and for replacement of glasses if they were not closed. And replacement of a safety cushion costs expensive. For example, to replace a pillow for the driver will cost 1600 US dollars, and even is more expensive, and all system with sensors, etc. is subject to replacement! And that – to order. So this expensive pleasure. So, advantages of a pneumopillow:
1. It does not disturb at movement and is imperceptible (oh, these belts! Removed, clasped, hung up and they still need adjustment).
2. Does not demand any additional conditions (everything is already ready in advance; more shortly, it is not necessary to be fastened).
3. Reliably protects the head and a breast of the person from a travmirovaniye.
But along with these advantages there are also minuses:
1. Big noise level when filling (because of it at test of the first pillows at verifiers eardrums burst).
2. An inefficiency of pillows at lateral collisions and oprokidyvaniye.
3. Operability of pillows after long use is insufficiently studied.
4. There are fears concerning false operation.
The safety wall is developed for elimination of some shortcomings of a safety cushion. the 1st part of a pillow limits vital space of the driver at front blow or capsizing. The second element protects the driver at lateral blow from contact with elements of a body of a car. But it while is at invention level, while... Though there is already an attempt of completion of a car not one standard pillow, and three. One standard, is located, as usual, in a steering column. The second – at breast level in the form of a pillow mattress for the swimming protecting the driver from lateral blow in the field of a trunk. And the third – limits vital space in the field of head moving. All these shifts are directed on lowering a traumatism, often and mortality. Also we will hope that this magnificent pillow becomes not a subject to "an additional complete set", and the ordinary invisible fellow traveler of the motorist, saving soon to it life.