E30 series BMW 3
since 1983-1994 of release
Repair and car operation
+ 1. Maintenance instruction
+ 2. Maintenance
- 3. Engine
+ 3.1.2. Specifications
- 3.2. Dismantle and major maintenance of the engine
3.2.3. Major maintenance – the general instructions
3.2.4. Compression check in engine cylinders
3.2.5. Major maintenance – general comments
3.2.6. Engine diagnostics by means of the vacuum gage
3.2.7. Major maintenance – alternatives
3.2.8. Dismantle of the power unit
3.2.9. Removal and engine installation
3.2.10. Order of dismantling of the engine
3.2.11. Dismantling of a head of the block of cylinders
3.2.12. Cleaning and check of a head of cylinders and details of the klapanny mechanism
3.2.13. Repair of valves
3.2.14. Assembly of a head of the block of cylinders
3.2.15. Removal of pistons and rods
3.2.16. Crankshaft dismantle
3.2.17. Intermediate shaft (only M20 engine)
3.2.18. Cleaning of the block of cylinders
3.2.19. Check of a condition of the block of cylinders
3.2.20. Honningovaniye of cylinders
3.2.21. Check of a condition of pistons and rods
3.2.22. Check of a condition of the crankshaft
3.2.23. Check of radical and shatunny bearings
3.2.24. Engine assembly order
3.2.25. Installation of piston rings
3.2.26. Installation of an intermediate shaft
3.2.27. Installation of the crankshaft and check of gaps in radical bearings
3.2.28. Installation of a back epiploon
3.2.29. Installation of rods and pistons, check of gaps in shatunny bearings
3.2.30. Engine start-up after repair and a running in
+ 3.3. Engine electric equipment
+ 4. Cooling system
+ 5. Heating and ventilation
+ 6. Fuel system
+ 7. Exhaust system
+ 8. Transmissions
+ 9. Coupling
+ 10. Brake system
+ 11. Running gear
+ 12. Body
+ 13. Electric equipment
+ 14. Good advice
3.2.6. Engine diagnostics by means of the vacuum gage
Measurement of depression is reliable and rather cheap way of diagnostics of the engine. According to indications of the vacuum gage it is possible to receive idea of a condition of piston group, of tightness of laying of a head of the block of the cylinders which are soaking up and final collectors, correctness of adjustments of a power supply system of the engine and production of exhaust gases, capacity of exhaust gases, a condition of valves (their zalipaniye or a burn-out) and springs of valves and also to check correctness of adjustment of the moment of ignition and preservation of phases of a gazoraspredeleniye at operation of the engine.
Unfortunately, indications of the vacuum gage are difficult for interpreting and results of the analysis of indications can be erroneous therefore, vacuum diagnostics is expedient for uniting with other methods.
Initial factors on which indications of the vacuum gage are analyzed and the most exact conclusions about an engine condition become, absolute instrument reading and nature of movement of an arrow of the device (dynamics of indications) are. A scale of the majority of vacuum gages проградуирована in mm. рт. column. In process of depression increase (and respectively pressure drop) instrument reading increases. On each 300 m above sea level absolute indications of the vacuum gage will differ approximately on 25 mm Hg.
Attach the vacuum gage directly to a soaking-up collector, but not to other openings through which the vacuum, by the channel of a certain length separated from a collector (for example, to openings before a butterfly valve) is created.
Before the beginning of tests completely warm up the engine. Block wheels and put the car on the hand brake. At position of the lever of gear shifting in neutral situation (or in the situation Park on cars with automatic transmission) start the engine and leave to idle.
Check the vacuum gage indication. On the serviceable engine the vacuum gage should show depression of 430-560 mm Hg, and the arrow of the device should be almost motionless.
Below the description of character of indications of the vacuum gage and a technique of definition of a condition of the engine on their basis follows.
and. Too low level of depression usually indicates a laying leakage between a soaking-up collector and the chamber of a butterfly valve, a vacuum hose, and also on too late ignition or for the wrong moment of opening and closing of valves. Before removing covers of a gear belt and to check combination of adjusting labels check ignition installation by means of a stroboscope and eliminate all other possible reasons.
B. If vacuum gage indications on 75–200 mm Hg are lower normal and are unstable (the arrow twitches), it indicates a leak in laying on an entrance of a soaking-up collector or on malfunction of a nozzle.
century. If the arrow regularly deviates on 50–100 mm Hg, the reason is the leakage of valves. For confirmation of this conclusion check a compression in engine cylinders.
. The arrow irregularly deviates towards low indications, or shaking shows low depression. A probable cause is the increased resistance to movement of valves, or interruptions in operation of cylinders. Check a compression in cylinders and examine candles.
. If idling the arrow quickly fluctuates within 100 mm Hg, and operation of the engine is accompanied by a smoke from the exhaust silencer, directing plugs of valves are worn-out. For check of this conclusion it is necessary to carry out tests of chambers of combustion for tightness (with an air rating). If the arrow quickly fluctuates and the increase in turns of the engine is at the same time observed, it is necessary to check tightness of laying of a soaking-up collector, elasticity of springs of valves. Such indications also can be caused by a burn-out of valves and interruptions in operation of cylinders (ignition failures).
е. Weak fluctuations of an arrow (within 20–30 mm Hg in both parties) indicate unstable work of ignition. Check all provided installations and adjustments, if necessary connect to the engine the analyzer of system of ignition.
. At big fluctuations of an arrow check a compression in cylinders, or carry out tests for tightness as causes of defect can be the idle cylinder, or violation of tightness of laying of a head of cylinders.
з. If instrument readings slowly change in a wide range, check purity of pipelines of system of compulsory ventilation of a case, correctness of adjustment of gas mixture, tightness of laying of the case of a butterfly valve, or soaking-up collector.
and. Sharply open a butterfly valve and when turns of the engine will reach 2500 about / mines release a zaslonka. Zaslonka should come back to a starting position slowly. Indications of the vacuum gage should fall almost to zero, then increase and exceed the control indications corresponding to stationary idling approximately on 125 mm Hg then depression should be restored at former level. If depression is restored slowly, and at sharp opening of a zaslonka excess of the control indication is absent, wear of piston rings can be the reason. At the slowest restoration of depression check purity of a final path (as a rule the exhaust silencer or the catalytic converter). The simplest way of such check consists in disconnection of an exhaust path before a suspicious site and in test repetition.